Human actions (motions) involved in producing products. These actions can be divided into three categories:
1. Value-Creating: Movements directly necessary for making products, such as welding, drilling, and painting.
2. Incidental Work: Motions that operators must perform to make products but that do not create value from the standpoint of the customer, such as reaching for a tool or clamping a fixture.
3. Waste: Motions that create no value and can be eliminated, such as walking to get parts or tools that could be positioned within reach.