John Shook learned about lean management while working for Toyota for 11 years in Japan and the U.S., helping it transfer production, engineering, and management systems from Japan to NUMMI and other operations around the world. While at Toyota's headquarters, he became the company's first American kacho (manager) in Japan. In the U.S., Shook joined Toyota’s North American engineering, research and development center in Ann Arbor, Michigan as general manager of administration and planning. His last position with Toyota was as senior American manager with the Toyota Supplier Support Center in Lexington, Kentucky, assisting North American companies adopt the Toyota Production System. Shook co-authored Learning to See, the book that introduced the world to value-stream mapping. He also co-authored Kaizen Express, a bi-lingual manual of the essential concepts and tools of the Toyota Production System. With Managing to Learn, Shook revealed the deeper workings of the A3 management process that is at the heart of Toyota’s management and leadership.
Shook is an industrial anthropologist with a master’s degree from the University of Hawaii, a bachelor’s degree from the University of Tennessee, and is a graduate of the Japan-America Institute of Management Science. At the University of Michigan, he was director of the Japan Technological Management Program and faculty member of the Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering.
Shook is the author of numerous articles, including "How to Change a Culture: Lessons from NUMMI"; Sloan Management Review, January 2010, which won Sloan’s Richard Beckhard Memorial Prize for outstanding article in the field of organizational development.
This is a very good book for learning A3 methodology. The biggest hurdles to implementation of this thinking are: 1) resistance to change, 2) limited understanding the value of the process and 3) incomplete understanding of the important and nuanced techniques of applying the process. This book gets to each of these things.
By paralleling the story and questions of supervisor/trainer and employee/student, Managing to Learn teaches A3 by addressing the challenges inherent to applying it, step by step. The book unfolds in an honest way, with resistance from the employee and internal questioning and self-reflection by an imperfect supervisor. Rather than presenting A3 as philosophy, it walks through the process of a real example, showing that A3 methodology takes careful thought, development and iteration.
What is an A3?
The most basic definition of an A3 would be a PDCA storyboard or report, reflecting Toyota’s way of capturing the PDCA process on one sheet of paper. But the broader notion of an A3 process—the way of thinking represented in this format—captures the heart of lean management. In this context, an A3 report structures effective and efficient dialogue that fosters understanding followed by agreement. It’s a tool that engenders communication and dialogue in a manner that leads to good decisions, where the proposed countermeasures have a better chance of being effective because they are based on facts and data.
Are there different A3 types for different situations?
Companies that use A3 reports often think of them in three or four categories.
The most basic is problem solving. This one takes on a fairly mechanical problem that can be analyzed to find a definable root cause, and that has clear-cut measures of success. This type of report calls on the author and all the participants to practice the Five Whys and other problem-analysis tools.
The proposal A3, which is what the character Desi Porter uses in the book, looks to the future (ideal) condition as a way of identifying the ongoing and immediate problem that needs to be fixed. This type of A3 tends to have more complex problems with multiple causes. The countermeasures may cut across organizational boundaries. As a result, the means by which the A3 author/owner can gain agreement and alignment across the organization become critical. While defining and analyzing the problem are critical, the author must then use nemawashi and dialogue and other methods to adopt the countermeasures.
A third type is typically called the status review, and refers to the current status of a problem A3 or any issue with information that needs to be shared.
Finally, there is a planning A3, which typically appears in the hoshin kanri planning process. Because any proposal has a plan as part of it many people don’t see this as separate proposal. You don’t need to spend much time on root cause analysis because there is already basic agreement on the current state.
How, literally, should I create an A3? Should I use a pencil or pen? Should I use a computer? And if so, which program is best?
Before responding to this question directly, understand that simply learning to produce an A3 report is not the most important issue. Most individuals will find that it’s relatively easy to create one. The real challenge is how you read, and use, these documents. That’s perhaps the core message of Managing to Learn. And that’s why the book spends so much time showing how reports are used to facilitate dialogue, and how individuals playing specific roles at specific times bring different tools and understanding to the task at hand.
That said, like most experienced practitioners, I prefer to write A3 reports by hand. It’s amazing how your thinking will become more engaged in the process with the simple thought of putting pencil to paper.
However, this is the computer age and many individuals and companies find it easier to create, share, and even store their A3s electronically. While all of the most popular computer programs can be used, each exerts a specific influence that can produce drawbacks. Some people swear by the capabilities of Excel, but I find it too difficult to use, and believe that the final products look unfriendly. Microsoft Word, on the other hand, is the simplest program, yet doesn’t lend itself easily to graphics, leading to reports that are often text-heavy. When creating an A3 with a computer, I favor using PowerPoint.
Should I use a standard A3 format?
Some companies create standard templates and make them available on a shared electronic space. Articulating and sharing a standard way of thinking can be a very productive thing. However, beware. The good news about creating a template is that people will follow it. And the bad news is…that they will follow it. The key thing to keep in mind is that the paper and format are far less important than the learning journey.
In terms of sharing and storing A3s, I don’t believe that I can give you the best advice on this logistical matter. Companies do everything from physically walking a current report through the gemba, to making photocopies and distributing them, or creating electronic methods of intranets or wikis or other shared spaces. The point here is to produce the method that works best for you.
For readers who are looking for takeaways that help them at work, should they expect Managing to Learn to provide immediate “how-to” tips that boost performance, or more big-picture types of ideas? Is this a “tool” book or is it a “management” book?
The answer to that question is…yes. There’s a great dilemma here. It’s easy to say that this is both a tool and management book at the same time. I’ve chosen to present the material in a way that emphasizes the managerial aspect, primarily because up until now, most works of this nature don’t get beyond PDCA. But at the same time, without teaching the discipline of rigorous problem-solving, this becomes somewhat of a fairy tale without any teeth to it. I’m always concerned about giving the tool without the wrapping, but equally concerned about giving too much wrapping.
My goal with this book is to provide a complete and accurate description of A3 management, so that a serious reader can get insights into the holistic nature of this system, seeing how this tool can be a way for them to approach this from whatever level they happen to be at.
How does A3 management fit in with other problem-solving tools and methodologies?
To answer that, one needs to see that “problem-solving” tools are really both problem and analysis tools. Likewise, an A3 contains both a problem and analysis section. One of the distinctive qualities of the A3 is that it properly frames any problem, as a story within a business context, and encourages the use of any scientific tool of analysis.
How do A3s relate to value-stream maps, as well as other lean tools?
Either can spawn the other. That is to say, an A3 can lead to the value-stream map or the value-stream map can generate an A3 to solve a specific problem. The most important thing to keep in mind is that every lean tool exists to address one question, which is: what problem do you want to “solve”? No tools are used in isolation. They are themselves temporary countermeasures, ways to address the stated problem at hand.
Also, these tools become effective only when the company has a hoshin kanri process in place. That’s how you make it work. Every individual working at a company with a commonly understood system of policy deployment can launch an A3 very clearly. But it’s extremely challenging to bring A3 thinking into a traditional management structure without this process. Without clear lines of decision making and empowerment of associates, so individuals know when and how to initiate an improvement idea, people in the organization get very confused.
Can I change my company’s culture by using A3s?
Edgar Schein, one of the authorities on organizational behavior, advises, “Don’t start by trying to change your culture.” Changing values and beliefs is nearly impossible: what you can change is what you DO. I’ve found from experience that it is easier to act your way to a new way of lean thinking to think your way to a new way of lean acting.
Can't the A3 process become bureaucratic and take too long?
Of course it can! Don’t let it!
Do A3s lead to conflict?
Of course they do! Or, more accurately, they reveal organizational disconnects and conflicts that are already there.
- Can A3s be used to manage meetings?
A3s enable and encourage discussion (as noted in the book.) But they also direct or control discussion so one powerful practical use of A3s is to manage meetings. The specific elements of an A3, such as defining the problem, can help prepare an effective meeting by clarifying to everyone the precise purpose.
What are some common mistakes that people should be aware of avoiding?
Users of the process often become more concerned with getting the A3 “right” than with resolving the issue at hand. That is a typical problem introduced with an A3. Or they get so enamored with the process that they create a proliferation of A3s, all of which get written and shared and stored, but are not used to resolve problems or gain agreement.
Does everybody on a team need to be “fluent” in A3 for one person to author and start using one?
For everyone to become fluent someone must start using one.
Was it hard for you to learn A3 thinking?
Yes. Everything about this process was initially an alien concept to me. I expected a job description and clear set of responsibilities when I started working for Toyota; instead I was given an A3 and needed to learn my own duties, as well as the managerial system, through the nitty-gritty work of producing, revising, and continuing to produce new A3s. This was a long and cumbersome process, but it was only through actually writing and revising and constantly redoing this collaborative tool that I learned about A3 thinking.
- The A3 as a PDCA Storyboard
- Sell One, Buy One, Make One: Transforming from Conventional to Lean Distribution
- More Thinking About Lean Transformation
- What I've Learned About Planning and Execution
- From Staffs Conducting Programs to Line Managers Solving Problems
- Ten Years and Counting
- The Problem of Sustainability
- Why Toyota Won and How Toyota Can Lose
- A3 Reports: Tool for Process Improvement
- A3 Template
- Reducing Waste and Errors: Piloting Lean Principles at IHC
- Toyota's All-Out Drive To Stay Toyota
Live Online Coaching!
Learning online does not mean learning alone. Avoid travel costs and maximize peer learning and instructor face-to-face time in an online environment that helps you to breakdown problem-solving using the A3 format.
By attending this remote workshop, you will be led by seasoned coaches one step at a time, allowing you the space & time you need to reflect and apply the learning along the way.
This approach helps you align around a problem at your company that is informed by real-time facts and your colleagues' knowledge. Along the way you will receive feedback and support from peers and senior coaches.
"Managing to Learn: How Lean Leaders Create Productive Problem-Solvers" Part 1 and 2
featuring: John Shook and Jim Womack
Originally presented: October 9, 2008 and November 13, 2009
View the Webinar
Strategy Deployment: What Is It? Why Should I Care?
featuring: Pascal Dennis
Originally presented: January 18, 2007
View the Webinar
- Detailed A3 Template (PDF) from Managing to Learn
- Three A3 Templates (PowerPoint File)
- A3 Template (Word File)
To provide you with a range of A3s from different organizations, addressing different problems, various printings of Managing to Learn include a few different examples of A3s. The complete list of A3s included in any printing of the book are listed below.
- Acme Stamping - Steering Bracket Value-Stream Improvement
- TWI Industries - Kaizen Plan
- University of Michigan Health System - Improving Patient Flow by Reducing Hospital Readmissions through Patient Involvement
- Textron Corp. - Lean Boot Camp, by Eric Ethington
- Medtronic - Service and Repair TAT Reduction
- Reduce Scratches in Assembly - Mary's Case
- Lean Institute Brasil - Right People at the Desired Lean Summit Session, by Christopher Thompson
created during attendance at the Managing to Learn workshop
- Acme Stamping Steering: Lead-Time & Inventory Reduction Project Status Review
originally printed in Understanding A3 Thinking by Durward K. Sobek II and Art Smalley
"This may be the first book that actually helps outsiders connect the dots and get a glimpse into how Toyota ticks." "As Shook shows, Toyota embeds the philosophy in day-to-day decision making and management tools such as the A3 so that staff have no choice but to learn it in a way they never forget."
From the Financial Times, (FT.com) By Alan Mitchell, Published: November 27, 2008
“This book is a nice blend of experience, practical how-to and provides a fair amount of ‘pulling back the curtain’ on Toyota’s management and problem solving methods and philosophy.”
From the Training Within Industry (TWI) blog
“I’ve used A3s in process improvement projects but I’ve never had the privilege of learning how to use an A3 from a master teacher—a sensei—and I suspect the same is true for most of you. This book, by Toyota veteran and Learning to See author John Shook, is as close as most of us will ever get to learning directly from the master.”
From Tom Southworth’s Lean Printing blog